Approved Director's Discretionary Time Programs Abstracts

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Program ID: 75_0001

Principal Investigator: R. T. Hamilton (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Observations of a Bright Type Ia Supernova in M82

DDT Highlight, see webpage.

Abstract: While SNe Ia have been observed extensively at optical and radio wavelengths, only recently have they been the subject of NIR observations. Nevertheless, NIR data can provide significant constraints on SNe Ia physics by revealing information about progenitor composition and explosion products. NIR spectra reveal features from elements such as He, C, O, Mg, and Mn that are undetectable or obscured by line blending at other wavelengths. FLITECAM on SOFIA, with its suite of grisms and filters, provide access to wavelengths that are completely or mostly obscured from ground-based observatories and can thereby make a unique contribution to the study of nearby bright SNe.

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Program ID: 75_0002

Principal Investigator: Robert D. Gehrz (University of Minnesota)

Title: Probing the Ejecta and Surroundings of SN 2014J in M82

DDT Highlight, see webpage.

Abstract: We propose to conduct repeated long-term observations of SN2014J in M82 using SOFIA Director's Discretionary Time. The objectives of the FLITECAM and FORCAST grism and photometric imaging observations are to determine the temporal development of the ejecta and the nature of the interactions of the SN radiation, ejecta, and blast wave with the surrounding material.

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Program ID: 75_0003

Principal Investigator: W. Vacca (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: FORCAST Observations of a Bright Type Ia Supernova in M82

DDT Highlight, see webpage.

Abstract: While SNe Ia have been observed extensively at optical and radio wavelengths, and recently at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, there have been almost no observations of SNe Ia at mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths. Nevertheless, MIR data can provide significant constraints on SNe Ia physics. The emission lines in the MIR are farther apart than in the optical, which mitigates line blending issues. This implies that kinematics can be determined directly and simply from the line profiles. The MIR lines also generally have lower optical depths and are often optically thin, which allows abundances to be determined in a far more direct manner. Since the MIR continuum is dominated by dust emission, MIR observations can also be used to place constraints on dust formation in the ejecta. FORCAST on SOFIA, with its suite of grisms and filters, can provide access to wavelengths that are completely or mostly obscured from ground-based observatories and thereby make a unique contribution to the study of nearby bright SNe.

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Program ID: 75_0013 and 75_0014

Principal Investigator: Jochen Eislöffel (Tautenberg)

Title: Catching the outbursting new FU Orionis object 2MASS J06593158-0405277 on the rise

Abstract: A new outbursting young stellar object of the rare FU Orionis type – 2MASS J06593158- 0405277 – has recently been discovered. Obtaining MIR and FIR photometry within the next months, while it is still on the rise of its burst, constitutes an unprecedented chance to learn more about where in the circumstellar disk such a burst starts, how it is triggered, and what its implications for planet formation may be. We are requesting FORCAST (45 min) and FIFI-LS (45 min) photometry to derive the spectral energy distribution of the source, while this burst is still on its rise.

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Program ID: 75_0015

Principal Investigator: Erick Young (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: [C II] Emission from the Horsehead Nebula

DDT Highlight, see webpage.

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Program ID: 75_0016

Principal Investigator: Melanie Chevance (CEA Saclay)

Title: The large-scale multi-phase ISM in the 30 Dor complex: A template for distant unresolved starburst regions

Abstract: We propose to use FIFI-LS on board the SOFIA Observatory to study the extreme environment of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud in the far-infrared fine structure lines. The proximity of this powerful starburst region provides a unique testbed for investigating the impact of a super star cluster (SSC) on the surrounding interstellar medium. Not only does the SSC R136 in 30 Doradus allow us to probe an important mode of star-formation during the time of galaxy assembly, it also evolves in a relatively low-metallicity environment that may be reminiscent of physical ISM conditions in younger high-z galaxies. With [CII], [OI] 145 mu and [OIII] 88 and 52 mu maps from FIFI-LS, along with other data already in hand, we will model the multi-phase ISM around 30 Doradus, as we have been doing thus far with the limited PACS observations, to unveil the full structure of the photodissociation regions and quantify the local conditions controlling the fraction of CO-dark gas. A large map (6'x5'), only achievable with SOFIA, is required to cover the extended PDR affected by the R136 luminous star cluster and will probe the gradient of physical conditions over a contiguous ~100 pc region. This study will result in the construction of a three dimensional view of the region as well as provide a template for unresolved starbursts in distant gas-rich galaxies.

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Program ID: 75_0017

Principal Investigator: Bill Vacca (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Mapping the Starburst in M82 with EXES

Abstract: At a distance of only ~3-4 Mpc, M82 is one of the nearest starburst galaxies, and therefore has been studied extensively across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Although previous MIR observations of M82 exist with ISO and Spitzer, these have limited spatial information. The beam was huge for ISO (14" x 20" at the smallest; Foerster-Schrieber et al. 2001; Verma et al. 2003) and the Spitzer observations consist of only a few targeted regions on the galaxy (Beirao et al. 2008). Neither set of observations was obtained with very high spectral resolution, so they yield no velocity information for the emitting gas. The ground-based observations of Achtermann & Lacy (1995, hereafter AL95), however, combine high spectral resolution (R~10000) with spatial sampling similar to what can be achieved with SOFIA/EXES. AL95 used Irshell on the IRTF to map M82 in the lines of Brα, [Ar III] 8.99 microns, [S IV] 10.51 microns, and [Ne II] 12.8 microns at a spatial resolution of ~2". We propose to use EXES to map M82 in the lines of [Ar II] 6.99 microns and [S III] 18.71 microns. These data will have a spatial resolution of 2-3" and will be combined with the results of AL95 to generate spatial maps of the [ArIII]/[ArII] and [SIV]/[SIII] line ratios, which can be compared to the [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratio (AL95). All three ratios provide constraints on the excitation of the emitting gas, which in turn yields constraints on the high mass stellar content (see e.g., Foerster-Schreiber et al. 2001), with relatively minimal corrections needed for extinction (compared to optical or NIR wavelengths). The proposed EXES observations will also allow us to examine the spatial variations in the abundance of Ar and S in M82. Interestingly, Verma et al. (2003) found that M82 was underabundant in S by a factor of 2 relative to the Ne and Ar abundances. It was not clear why this should be the case. The spatial distribution of the line flux can also be compared with the spatial maps of [O III] 52 microns made by FIFI-LS, which reveal strong emission from the nucleus and weaker emission extending along the minor axis of the galaxy, tracing the outflow. Finally, the high spectral resolution provided by the EXES observations can be used to trace the motion of highly ionized gas, and then compared with the AL95 and FIFI-LS results.

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Program ID: 75_0018

Principal Investigator: Bill Reach (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: EXES Spectroscopy of H2 in IC443

Abstract: To fill a gap in the flight plans for this EXES flight series, we propose to observe H2 from the supernova remnant IC 443, at locations where the shock front is impact a molecular cloud.

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Program ID: 75_0019

Principal Investigator: Pablo Fonfria

Title: Searching for C4 in the CSE of the AGB star IRC+10216

Abstract: We propose to observe the AGB star IRC+10216 around 1549 cm-1 (6:456 um) with the spectrograph EXES to confirm the existence of the fundamental band ν3 of the carbon chain C4, which would mean the first evident detection of this molecule in space. The ability of SOFIA to observe from high atmospheric layers joined to the high spectral resolution provided by EXES will give us the chance to discover this important molecule in a spectral window unavailable from ground.

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Program ID: 75_0020

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Filler observations for dead legs

Abstract: Filler observations for dead legs

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Program ID: 75_0021

Principal Investigator: Maria Kirsanova

Title: Dust transformation under irradiation and shocks around massive B-type stars: from cold grains coated with water-ice mantles to small PAHs

Abstract: With the help of the FLITECAM instrument, SOFIA provides a unique opportunity to observe all three stages of the impact of massive stars on the dust, and study the dust transformation under irradiation and shocks from large cold grains covered by ice mantles to small PAHs. FLITECAM allows us to outline dust content in three basic phases: ionized, atomic and molecular gas near single B­ type stars. FLITECAM has a large enough field of view to get three compact bright HII regions in one image, while the 2' slit in the spectrographic mode makes it possible to obtain their spectra. First, using the Paα filter we will trace highly excited photo­ionized gas. Second, in order to study PAH distributions in these regions we intend to use the PAH filter centered at 3.3 μm. Small neutral PAHs have been found to be responsible for the generation of 3.3 μm band (Mulas et al., A&A, 2006). Using this filter, we will make a map of small neutral PAHs, which can survive only in the PDR, but not in the ionized region. The Spitzer 3.6 μm filter, which covers the PAH aromatic emission of 3.3 μm band, does not suit our purposes as it also includes other prominent features, like the water absorption band at 3 μm and the 3.4 μm aliphatic hydrocarbon emission band. We will map the distribution of ionized PAHs using archival Spitzer data at 8 μm. Third, observations of water ice absorption with the FLITECAM H2O ice filter towards infrared­bright regions will allow us to understand whether ice mantles on dust grains can survive in the PDR.

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Program ID: 75_0022

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Mid-infrared spectral map of Orion

Abstract: The Orion BN/KL region, including the Trapezium and Orion Bar, is one of the most investigated areas of massive star formation in the Galaxy. This is because Orion is only about 400pc away, while most massive star forming regions are kiloparsec distances. Thus, we get a much more detailed picture of massive star formation processes, chemistry, and dynamics in Orion, than anywhere else. This program will use the FORCAST SLITSCAN mode to map the central ~3’x3’ area of the Orion Nebula, including the BN/KL, Ney-Allen, and Trapezium regions. We will create a spectral map of the area at spatial and spectral resolutions never before possible. These observations will generate a rich dataset for the general astronomical community at wavelengths and resolutions never before achieved.

This program was replaced as an inclusion in 76_0002

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Program ID: 75_0023

Principal Investigator: Daniel Angerhausen (U. Bern)

Title: SOFIA observations of TRAPPIST-1: spectrophotometry, stellar variability and transit timing variations

Abstract: Context: The nearby ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1 hosts at least seven transiting Earth-size exo- planets. At a distance of about 40 light years, the TRAPPIST-1 system is one of the most interesting and observationally accessible exoplanet hosts, and is a prime target for JWST. Now is the time to begin a detailed study of these planets and their host star. To fully realize the potential of JWST observations of this target, it is essential that we have precise ephemerides of the planets, and that we understand the host star variability during spectrophotometric observations. Aims: The science goals of this proposal are three-fold: (1) to collect broad-band spectrophotometry time-series observations of the innermost planet TRAPPIST-1b, (2) to study variability in preparation for spectrophotometry of exoplanets with ultra-cool hosts like TRAPPIST-1 with JWST, and (3) to obtain additional transit-timing measurements to refine the orbital ephemeris. Methods: We will observe a transit of TRAPPIST-1b using SOFIA's capability of simultaneous optical and infrared spectrophotometry. TRAPPIST-1b is our primary target, but our observing win- dows also include opportunities to observe multiple/overlapping transits of other planets in the system. Furthermore, we propose to repeat these very short time-series observations (∼ 30 min transit plus same amount of baseline) over the Fall 2017 FLITECAM campaign to track the variability of our results over different timescales. Synergies: The proposed observations are preparatory work for JWST observations that will take place beginning in 2019. TRAPPIST-1 is part of multiple JWST Guaranteed Time Observation programs and will be observed with multiple instruments (NIRSpec, NIRISS, MIRI) that cover a range of near- infrared wavelengths, so it is critical to characterize the system and its variability at multiple wavelengths now to assist interpretation of the upcoming JWST observations. Anticipated results: With regard to our three science objectives we anticipate the following science outcomes: (1) simultaneous spectrophotometric observations in z' and K band, (2) measurements of the variability of the host star and its impact on the repeatability of spectrophotometric observations, and (3) high-precision transit times for TTV analysis. Analyzing the variability of TRAPPIST-1 will provide essential input to the much anticipated observations with JWST.

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Program ID: 75_0024

Principal Investigator: Matthew Richter

Title: Molecules in NGC 7538 IRS 1 & 9

Abstract: High-mass young-stellar objects are particularly well suited for mid-infrared absorption studies focused on the molecular inventory of the region. The embedded star warms the dust around it creating a strong “background lamp” and enriches the surrounding gas with products of dust-grain chemistry. NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 9 are frequent targets for this type of experiment both from the ground (Knez et al 2009 [K09]; Barentine & Lacy 2012) and space (Boonman & van Dishoeck 2003). Many molecules have been detected in the mid-IR, such as C2H2, HCN, NH3, CH4, CH3, CS, and HCNO (K09). From these data, K09 derive the temperature, abundance, velocity, covering factor, and estimate the age of IRS 1 via comparison with chemical models.

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Program ID: 75_0025

Principal Investigator: B-G Andersson (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Confirming Radiative Atomic Alignment of C+ in IC 63

Abstract: In regions with ordered radiation and magnetic fields, but low collisional rates, atoms and ions can become aligned through optical pumping. This "ground state alignment" (GSA) provides a new way to determine magnetic characteristics in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and similar environments. We propose to confirm a tentative detection of GSA-induced polarization in the [C II] 158μm line in the reflection nebula IC 63.

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Program ID: 75_0026

Principal Investigator: William Sparks

Title: SOFIA confirmation of Europa plumes in coordination with HST

Abstract: The presence of plumes on Europa is of extreme interest to NASA, as it develops a major flagship mission to a prime astrobiological Solar System target. A large amount of Hubble Space Telescope time is being invested in 2018 to confirm and characterize the plume events. SOFIA EXES can provide sensitivity comparable to HST, and has the advantage of certainty that any detections are unambiguously water. We request SOFIA EXES observations to be obtained of Europa during the period of the intensive HST campaign (any time during 2018), to provide sensitive detection limits and quantitative characterization of plumes on Europa, of interest to NASA, the scientific community and general public.

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Program ID: 75_0027

Principal Investigator: Kenneth Hinkle

Title: Measuring water in AGB circumstellar outflows. II. Extreme Cases

Abstract: Significant gaps remain in our understanding of mass loss on the AGB. The AGB Mira stage accounts for 90 percent of the mass loss in low mass stars. This mass flow contains the critical elements for life that are produced in these stars. We know how these elements are produced but we only know a framework about the process that transports them into the ISM (Höfner 2008). The cool outflow from Miras is molecular and low excitation lines are formed through the molecular envelope into the circumstellar gas expanding at terminal velocity. For oxygenrich stars H2O could be one of the most useful molecular probes. However, H2O is difficult to use because the telluric H20 spectrum is opaque for the most significant astrophysical transitions. Science verification observations with SOFIA demonstrated the ability of EXES to observe in stars the lowest excitation transitions of the strongest of the H2O vibrationrotation bands, the 6 μm (010)-(000) bending transition (Indriolo et al. 2015). We were granted time to observe these lines in the prototype Mira o Ceti to measure the acceleration of circumstellar gas and the abundance of water in the gas as it passes from the base of the circumstellar shell to the H2O maser region. These parameters will provide vital information on the role of grain mantels in transforming transparent grains into grains that can be pushed by radiation pressure.

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Program ID: 75_0028

Principal Investigator: Graham Harper

Title: Mass Loss Diagnostics for Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors

Abstract: The goal of this proposal is to improve our understanding of the thermodynamic/dynamic conditions (density, temperature, and velocity) in the near-stellar environment of Aur (K5- M0 Iab-Ib) to help understand the structures resulting from the poorly understood mass-loss process (Arroyo-Torres et al. 2015, A&A 575, 50; Kervella, Le Bertre, & Perrin, G. (Eds), Betelgeuse Workshop 2012. The Physics of Red Supergiants: Recent Advances and Open Questions, EAS Pub. Ser, Vol 60, and references therein). This goal addresses multiple astrophysics problems including mass loss, and its effect on stellar and galactic evolution, and the interpretation of early-time supernova spectra.

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Program ID: 75_0029

Principal Investigator: Tomasz Kaminski

Title: Close Circumstellar Chemistry of Oxygen-rich AGB Stars

Abstract: In this DDT proposal, we would like to make use of the scheduling gaps of SOFIA/EXES to conduct an exploratory survey in the 14 m, 7 m, and 6 m regions towards the high-mass-loss AGB star TX Cam. The main goal of this project is twofold. First, we would like to detect the HCN v2 = 0 ! 1 absorption. Second, we would like to determine, or obtain direct observational constraint on, the abundance of CH4 in the inner CSE.

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Program ID: 75_0030

Principal Investigator: Curtis DeWitt

Title: Locating the Water Vapor in the Disk of the FU Ori object V1057 Cyg

Abstract: V1057 Cyg is an archetypal FU Ori object, a class of young solar-mass stars defined by massive accretion events causing 4-6 magnitude brightness increases. Because of the disk heating, these sources have a disk photosphere that dominates the system luminosity, with the observed effective temperature and absorption line width depending on the wavelength of the observation. FU Ori objects present a unique opportunity to probe young disk atmospheres because of their unusual disk vertical temperature profile. Using R=100 spectroscopy with IRS/Spitzer, Green et al. 2006 report the appearance of water vapor absorption in V1057 Cyg and in other FU Ori objects. We will confirm this identification with EXES in medium resolution mode and resolve individual water vapor lines, which will unveil the kinematics and temperatures of the absorbing gas, as well as yield clues to the way the chemistry of a particular circumstellar disk responds to FU Ori events.

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Program ID: 75_0031

Principal Investigator: Michael Mumma

Title: Volatiles in the Unique Oort Cloud Comet C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS)

Abstract: The composition and structure of cometary nuclei are keys to understanding the formation and evolution of matter in the early Solar System (Mumma and Charnley 2011; Bockelee-Morvan etal. 2004). Compared with dust, the ices are more sensitive to changes induced by thermal and radiation processing, so their identities and abundances can provide central clues to those aspects of planetary heritage. For that reason, increasing emphasis has been placed on classifying comets according to the composition of native ices and dust (rather than orbital dynamics). Two hypervolatiles (CO2 and CS2) fall within the spectral grasp of EXES, but cannot be sensed from the ground. We propose to target these two important primary volatiles to further quantify the hypervolatile chemistry of this comet.

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Program ID: 75_0032

Principal Investigator: Archana Soam

Title: Do I sit in the sun or in the shade?

Abstract: We propose to use some of the remaining OC6E dead-legs to measure the gas temperature in IC 63 along the long EXES High-Medium slit, to quantify the gas-grain collision rate in gas directly exposed to the light from γ Cas and gas in the shade of the molecular clumps.

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Program ID: 75_0034

Principal Investigator: Paul Lucey

Title: Water abundance on the Moon from 6 μm observations

Abstract: DDT observations of the Moon

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Program ID: 75_0035

Principal Investigator: Dariusz Lis

Title: D/H Ratio in Cometary Water: Understanding the Origin of Earth’s Oceans

Abstract: Comets contain some of the most pristine materials left over from the formation of the solar system. Measurements of isotopic ratios, in particular the D/H ratio in cometary water, provide key constraints on the origin of Earth’s oceans. The newly commissioned 4GREAT instrument on SOFIA allows very accurate measurements of the D/H ratio in water through nearly-simultaneous observations of the low-energy 509 GHz HDO and the 547 GHz H218O lines. We will use this instrument to measure the D/H ratio in a TOO comet with a figure of merit >= 2E29 s^-1 au^-1 in Cycle 7, to complement the GT observations of comet 46P/Wirtanen in December 2018. The data analysis and interpretation will follow the procedures successfully applied to our Herschel observations of comet 103P/Hartley 2, the first Jupiter Family comet in which the D/H ratio was measured. The same well-tested excitation models will be used to convert the observed line intensities to molecular production rates. Only SOFIA allows nearly-simultaneous observations of the low-energy HDO and H218O in a very similar field of view. This significantly simplifies the analysis and decreases measurement uncertainties. Based on historical average, we expect about one comet per year to be bright enough for HDO to be detectable with SOFIA. Over its lifetime, SOFIA can thus double the number of existing D/H measurements, significantly improving the statistics and providing key observational constraints for understanding Earth’s habitability. This research is perfectly aligned with the strategic objective of the DISCOVER theme of the NASA 2018 Strategic Plan: “Understand the Sun, Earth, Solar System, and Universe.”

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Program ID: 75_0037

Principal Investigator: Bringfried Stecklum

Title: DDT Observation

Abstract: DDT Proposal

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Program ID: 75_0038

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: [OI] 63 micron Emission in the Trumpler 16 Region

Abstract: We will make fully-sampled [OI] 63 micron maps in the Trumpler 16 region of the Carina Nebula Complex. The [OI] maps for these DDT observations will be toward regions of strongest [OI] emission identified during observations of project 07_0028 (PI Goldsmith). The 07_0028 observations are optimized for [CII] observations, and the [OI] map obtained in parallel will be sparsely sampled. We will use the sparsely-sampled map as a 'finder chart' to identify regions of bright, extended [OI] 63 micron emission, and then design observations to map these regions.

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Program ID: 75_0039

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Observation of X Her

Abstract: Filler observation.

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Program ID: 75_0040

Principal Investigator: Kate Su (University of Arizona)

Title: Constraining Planetesimal Collisions in the Terrestrial Planet Zone of HD 166191

Abstract: The newly discovered variable emission by luminous young (10–200 Myr) debris disks provides a unique opportunity to explore exo-asteroid collisions during the oligarchic and chaotic phases of terrestrial planet-building. Our multiyear Spitzer monitoring shows that the debris production in the terrestrial zone of HD 166191 has become very active since 2018, exhibiting a large-scale, year-long flux increase similar to that observed in the prototype of the variable system ID8 (Su et al. 2019). The infrared flux increase is consistent with the aftermath of two Vesta-sized asteroids colliding, located at 0.54 au from the stars, suggesting on-going collisions of rocky bodies in real time and signaling the final stages of planet construction. We have obtained a SOFIA/FORCAST grism spectrum of the HD 166191 system in 2017 during the quiescent state. The spectrum reveals the presence of abundant small grains of amorphous and Fe-rich crystalline silicates in the 0.2–1 au region, consistent with the material produced in high temperature events. New Spitzer observation obtained in July 2019 further shows that the disk flux at 3.6/4.5 μm has doubled since 2018, reaching to a record high level. A new mid-infrared spectrum of the system in such an active state can reveal the presence of newly generated and highly shocked material produced by hyperve- locity collisions, providing potentially highly diagnostic information about the violent events involved in planet building. We propose to obtain a new epoch SOFIA/FORCAST grism spectrum of the system when it is in such a highly active state. FORCAST grism-mode spectroscopy is well suited to study the mineralogical solid-state features, providing direct constraints on the dust composition of the newly produced debris. The proposed spectrum would enable a quantitative comparison in the debris properties – the amount and composition of small grains – between the quiescent and active states of the system.

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Program ID: 75_0041

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: S-DDT Program: The Far-Infrared Properties in the EDGECALIFA Galaxy Sample

Abstract: We propose to obtain [CII], [OI], and dust continuum information in up to 31 galaxies from the EDGE/CALIFA survey of local galaxies, a representative sample of normal z=0 galaxies with full optical IFU spectroscopy and CO interferometric information. This represents a substantial addition to Herschel KINGFISH spectroscopy (50 galaxies), in a sample with exceptional optical and mm-wave ancillary data that uniquely leverages the [CII] and continuum science. Moreover, the galaxies are selected to fall in a poorly studied area of the SFR-[CII] relation, intermediate between "normal disks" and "starbursts", allowing us to study the onset of the "[CII] deficit". We will use these observations to study the relation between [CII] emission, cooling, and SFR, the "[CII] deficit", and the relation between dust, extinction, and molecular gas. Two of these galaxies were observed by FIFI-LS in cycle 5, confirming our estimates for the [CII] emission. All analysis expertise and ancillary data are in place to quickly publish the survey results, assuming we obtain about 15 objects.

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Program ID: 75_0042

Principal Investigator: Jochen Eisloeffel (Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg)

Title: Catching the accretion burst in G24.33+0.14 on the rise

Abstract: A new outbursting high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) - G24.33+0.14 - has been discovered on September 5. Observations of members of the Maser Monitoring Organization (M2O) are showing it flaring in the 22 GHz water line, several methanol lines, and other rare maser species in unprecedented detail. Obtaining MIR and FIR photometry is crucial to assess the consequences of the heatwave passing through the accretion disk and exciting these masers, and to derive the energy input it is delivering to the disk material. Because of the urgency we are requesting FORCAST (45 min) and FIFI-LS/HAWC+ (45 min) photometry with this DDT proposal to derive the spectral energy distribution of this unique source in the next weeks, while this burst is still on its rise.

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Program ID: 75_0043

Principal Investigator: Jochen Eisloeffel (Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg)

Title: Deciphering the periodically outbursting masers in G107

Abstract: Recently, accretion bursts of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers due to mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to gain knowledge on protostellar accretion variability. It implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion, possibly caused in a YSO binary source. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data and the contemporary maser lightcurve with the Torun 32-m radio telescope. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol, water, and hydroxyl masers which are every ~ 34.5 days. A current first interferometric measurement at 3 mm with NOEMA shows clear indications for strong infall in the observed molecular lines. With this proposal to the DDT Flash Call for FIFI-LS we are requesting two flight legs of 48 min each, one towards the beginning, the second towards the end of the FIFI-LS flight series to derive the spectral energy distribution and its possible variability - as well as a few crucial emission lines tracing accretion and warm gas - of this prototypical source near its burst maximum and in quiescence. With these data we will derive the accretion rate and the energy input available to pump the maser emission. This will allow us new insights in the emerging field of using methanol masers as signposts to the dynamics of the accretion-driven growth of massive stars and compare to latest high-mass binary formation models.

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Program ID: 75_0045

Principal Investigator: Dario Fadda (SOFIA Science Center)

Title: Charting C+ in a Milky Way analog: NGC 7331

Abstract: We propose to obtain a map of the [CII] emission of the NGC 7331 galaxy. The far-infrared morphology of this local galaxy (cz = 800 km/s) is dominated by a central dust ring which hosts a third of the present star formation activity. The galaxy can be seen as an analog of the Milky Way because of similar morphology, mass, and star formation activity. Also they share the existence of a massive HI disk and a dusty ring which hosts a large fraction of the star formation activity. Method. A central strip of the galaxy has been already observed with PACS/Herschel showing intense [CII] emission. We will use FIFI-LS on SOFIA to extend the Herschel/PACS [CII] strip of NGC 7331 to a coverage matching the existent CO map (HERACLES survey). [CII] is the brightest far-infrared line emitting up to a few percent of the total infrared power. It is considered an excellent tracer of the molecular gas in the interstellar medium and a good star-formation indicator. Establishing the reliability of [CII] as star formation indicator is paramount for studies of high-z galaxies made with ALMA. By comparing the [CII] emission map with existing CO, HI, H-, and infrared maps from Spitzer and Herschel, we will be able to pinpoint the origin of the [CII] emission in the galaxy. This map, in conjunction with other complete [CII] maps obtained with SOFIA (M 51 and NGC 6946), will be used to constrain the relationship between star formation rate and global [CII] emission. Synergies. NGC 7331 has been completely mapped by several facilities: VLA (HI), IRAM (CO), Spitzer (mid-IR), Herschel (far-IR), GALEX (UV). All these data are publicly available from different projects (THINGS, HERACLES, SONGS, KINGFISH) and will allow a direct comparison with the SOFIA data. Also, the availability of all these data makes possible precise star formation rate estimates with different techniques. Anticipated results. We will produce the first complete [CII] map of NGC 7331. We will compare the distribution of the [CII] emission with those of atomic and molecular gas to pinpoint the origin of the [CII] emission in the different parts of the galaxy. Since this galaxy is a Milky Way analog, we can constrain the relationship between [CII] and total star formation rate obtaining an estimate valid for the majority of normal galaxies observed at high redshift.

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Program ID: 75_0046

Principal Investigator: Randolf Klein (SOFIA Science Center)

Title: Completing the FIFI-LS observations of DR21

Abstract: Context Massive star formation is a very energetic process. How the energy injected by the young massive stars affects the parental molecular clouds is of importance for star-forming theories and galaxy evolution. Aims This proposal aims at studying the feedback mechanisms in DR21, a massive hub in the DR21 molecular ridge. Especially the photodissociation regions (PDRs), where radiative processes erode the cloud, is the taregt of the proposed investigation. Methods FIFI-LS has already gathered data on DR21, but for a full analysis a few more transitions are needed. With the proposed observations of [OIII]52 μm and two high-J CO lines, the data set will be complete and modeling can provide maps of physical parameters like temperature, densities and UV radiation fields. Synergies This study is complementary to the FEEDBACK Legacy proposal which will provide high spectral resolution maps of the Cygnus X region to study the effects of winds on the star-forming regions, whereas the FIFI-LS observations provide many diagnostic lines suitable for a PDR analysis.

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Program ID: 75_0047

Principal Investigator: Elaine Winston (CfA Harvard Smithsonian)

Title: G104.52+01.24: Effect of Environment on Star Formation in the Outer Galaxy with FIFI-LS

Abstract: While the basic processes of high mass star formation are generally understood, the effects of environment on the formation of massive stars, the progression of star formation across a massive cluster, and on the evolution of the young low-mass stars forming therein has not been well characterized. In order to investigate the changes in the star formation process caused by the differing environment in the outer Galaxy (lower metallicity, temperature, density, etc.), we propose to use FIFI-LS on SOFIA to obtain integral field spectra of the region around the central source and walls of the outer Galaxy cluster G104.52+01.24. These observations will complement our recently proposed observations with SOFIA/FORCAST of the same region. They will further compliment our recently published Spitzer and near-IR study, and scheduled Chandra observation, and followup ground-based spectroscopic study of the YSOs. The combination of these data will allow us to measure the ionization in the environment of the central massive stars and in the associated ridge where we identified a number of embedded protostars. We will examine the effect that these stars have on their surroundings through outflows and radiation, and how it is shaping the molecular cloud and triggering subsequent generations of star formation.

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Program ID: 76_0001

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Community Science: HAWC+ Polarimetry of 30Dor

Abstract: This program will acquire Band C and D polarimetry of the bright FIR regions in 30 Dor, as a community data set. A four pointing Band C map will match the area of a single pointing band D map, yielding estimates p/sig_p>3 for most of the area.

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Program ID: 76_0002

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: FORCAST S-DDT Program Cycle 6

Abstract: These are the S-DDT (Strategic DDT) Programs for Cycle 6.

This program includes 75_0022 among other observations.

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Program ID: 76_0003

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Strategic DDT Observations of Galaxian Magnetic Fields

Abstract: To provide archival images of nearby galaxies in far-infrared polarization with HAWC+, utilizing surge capacity flights.

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Program ID: 76_0004

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: High resolution spectral survey of the massive protostar NGC 7538 IRS 1

Abstract: We will observe the high-mass protostar NGC 7538 IRS 1 with EXES at high-resolution (R=55000) from 5.5 - 8.0 microns.

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Program ID: 76_0005

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: Resolving pure rotational water vapor transitions in massive protostars

Abstract: We will use EXES to take resolved spectra of the 19 micron region of massive protostars that have been detected with deep 5-7.5 micron ro-vibrational water vapor bands. The 19um water vapor transitions will be sensitive to different but related absorbing structures in the protostellar envelope.

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Program ID: 76_0006

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: [OI] Observations of the Horsehead Nebula

Abstract: We will map the Horsehead Nebula and the L1630/IC434 interface using upGREAT’s High Frequency Array. These [OI] data will allow us to study the atomic gas in the transition region between the HII region IC434 and the dense molecular cloud L1630, including its dynamics. This project is an important complement the upGREAT [CII] map (DDT project 75_0015) of this iconic region.

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Program ID: 76_0007

Principal Investigator: Harold Yorke (SOFIA/USRA)

Title: S-DDT Program: The Far-Infrared Properties in the EDGE-CALIFA Galaxy Sample

Abstract: We propose to obtain [CII], [OI], and dust continuum information in up to 31 galaxies from the EDGE/CALIFA survey of local galaxies, a representative sample of normal z=0 galaxies with full optical IFU spectroscopy and CO interferometric information. This represents a substantial addition to Herschel KINGFISH spectroscopy (50 galaxies), in a sample with exceptional optical and mm-wave ancillary data that uniquely leverages the [CII] and continuum science. Moreover, the galaxies are selected to fall in a poorly studied area of the SFR-[CII] relation, intermediate between "normal disks" and "starbursts", allowing us to study the onset of the "[CII] deficit". We will use these observations to study the relation between [CII] emission, cooling, and SFR, the "[CII] deficit", and the relation between dust, extinction, and molecular gas. Two of these galaxies were observed by FIFI-LS in cycle 5, confirming our estimates for the [CII] emission. All analysis expertise and ancillary data are in place to quickly publish the survey results, assuming we obtain about 15 objects.

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